Thomas Caldwell to be a veteran in his 60s v a soft physique, oval glasses, no income, and a history of psychological illness. “I’ve been schizophrenic all my life, hearing voices,” he when said in a courtroom. He didn’t have a license to market firearms, yet that hadn’t quit him. In 2015, according to prosecutors, police discovered a Glock in a Milwaukee medicine house and also quickly connected it come him. That purchased it only the day before.

Months later, one agent through the bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and also Explosives (ATF) confronted Caldwell around the pistol. According to the ATF, he stated he had actually been purchasing weapons from a licensed dealer, then reselling countless of them v Armslist.com, a website that connects sellers v buyers searching for anything native a pistol come an AR-15.

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If Caldwell want to market guns, the ATF warned him, there was a proper method to perform it. There is no obtaining a federal weapons license, he to be breaking the law and potentially putting weapons into the hand of criminals.

Caldwell didn’t listen, and also he regulated to revolve flipping weapons into a comprehensive business, prosecutors later on said. In between December 2015 and May 2018, the made cash deposits right into his financial institution account totaling much more than $19,000, all from gun sales. Even after his early run-in with authorities, he retained up the exercise for years. In 2017, Madison police discovered a Taurus 9mm pistol throughout an investigation, then traced it ago to a acquisition Caldwell had made 2 weeks before.

Eventually, the ATF uncovered that 11 firearms recovered by police during investigations had been to buy by Caldwell. Due to the fact that the ATF’s 2015 warning, he’d bought 95 handguns and 11 rifles indigenous 57 various sellers. Caldwell posted more than 200 listings for guns on the website, follow to prosecutors, sometimes clearly noting the weapons were brand-new and also unfired.


According to prosecutors, he had actually said that a license was “too lot paperwork”

Officials believed the short “time come crime” — the gap between a sale and when it’s recovered at a crime scene — supposed Caldwell had become a known resource for criminals. A prosecutor would later on say a tragedy to be “inevitable.” as the Chicago Tribune listed last year, authorities decreased to speak why he no charged much earlier.

Two years after he an initial came come the fist of the ATF, agents arranged an undercover sting, purchase a Walther .40-caliber pistol indigenous Caldwell on Armslist. However while Caldwell to be still under investigation, he offered a weapon on Armslist and, months later, the gun somehow arrived in Chicago. Once it did, Police commander Paul Bauer responded to a call in the Loop and caught up with a suspect. In the struggle that followed, Bauer was shot six times and also killed v the gun.

Caldwell, according to the ATF, defined selling guns as one addiction. Police enforcement a find warrant top top his home and uncovered 44 firearms as lock kept structure their case. Owning a lot of guns is not in chin a crime, and also undeterred, Caldwell sold another gun to an undercover investigator top top Armslist a month later.

He pleaded guilty to illegally selling firearms in 2018, nearly three years after first being warned by the ATF. Follow to prosecutors, he had actually said the a patent was “too much paperwork.”

Caldwell no the only constant user of Armslist. End the years, the website has end up being a significant destination because that firearm buyers and sellers. The site have the right to be supplied legally, and also its regards to use explicitly straight users to follow applicable firearms laws. Critics, however, say the site’s operators have actually taken a hands-off technique to moderating the contents on their platform that fuels violence and allows private sellers come bypass acquiring a federal weapons license.

Law enforcement deals with legal obstacles to policing rogue sellers choose Caldwell, but the regulation has additionally put Armslist itself out of reach. The exact same legal protections meant to aid the internet flourish have additionally ensured the weapons keep flowing.

“To protect the great actors, you have to write a typical that permits people to it is in pretty destructive actors too,” claims James Grimmelmann, professor of legislation at Cornell University. “The an obstacle is how do you distinguish the great from the damaging actors.”

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Under commonwealth law, the legal for human being to sell guns without a background check. The only as soon as they come to be “engaged in the business” of selling guns that they are forced by law to attain a patent from the ATF and also run checks on every sale.

So when does selling firearms turn native a hobby into a full-fledged company enterprise? It’s daunting to tell. One human being might, for example, inherit dozens of antiques and also sell them without issue. But an additional person can buy a grasp of guns from a registered seller, flip them in personal sales without conducting background checks, and also be deemed involved in the business.

Executive actions made throughout the second term that the Obama presidency were claimed to tighten the an interpretation of “engaging in the business.” lock state the those “who make use of the net or various other technologies must acquire a license, just as a dealer whose business is operation out that a timeless brick-and-mortar store.” in ~ the time, critics said that the actions were “legally meaningless” and also that they amounted to little more than “political theater.”

“The president and also Congress often charge bureaucratic agencies with really broad and ambitious tasks, and they rarely administer sufficient capital to actually carry them out,” said Timothy Lytton, a differentiated professor of law at Georgia State university who specialization in safety and security regulation and gun violence.

The ambiguity of federal legislation — and also the fact it is rarely imposed — pipeline it open up to exploitation. And also Armslist is house to countless sellers whose activity falls in a gray area.

The Verge and also The Trace scraped an ext than 2 million Armslist listings native December 2016 with March 2019 to identify users who might be skirting the law through high-volume sales.


“If who calls friend up and says, ‘Hey, I’d prefer to purchase a gun,’ friend should have the ability to check if the person deserve to have a gun”

We searched the text of listings because that phone numbers and isolated the number that appeared most frequently. Armslist motivates users to interact through direct messages ~ above the website, yet some sellers may encompass direct contact information in their posts.

We identified much more than 700 phone number that appeared in 10 or much more listings. The many used call number belonged come a seller in southern Carolina who was connected with more than 300 listings top top Armslist during the period of time extended by our scraping. (The user denied posting ads top top the site, but confirmed your phone number, i beg your pardon was contained as contact information on each ad.) Thirty-eight various other phone numbers appeared in 50 or much more posts top top the site.

To determine if sellers to be licensed to command sales, we contrasted the contact information in the ads against the publicly easily accessible list that federal guns licenses, which has registered sellers’ names, addresses, and phone numbers. Only 14 that the phone number attached to a high volume of ads showed up in the ATF’s database.

The Trace and also The Verge dubbed every call number attached to 25 or more listings — virtually 150 in total. We spoke come 10 sellers altogether. Nobody of those sellers said they had actually a license to deal firearms. Two recognized that they supplied Armslist to revolve a profit on sales, while the remainder reported utilizing the site mostly to offload firearms in their exclusive collections. “Obviously if you acquire something and also you know have the right to get an ext for it, she probably simply going to revolve around and also sell the again,” one user said.

All that the individuals we speak with said they vetted prospective buyers in some way, whether by analysis through the who online existence or simply getting a feeling of the human being while negotiating a sale. But only a handful stated they took customers come a licensed guns dealer to carry out a lift check prior to making a sale.

One user indigenous Florida, who phone number was linked to almost 50 listings, claimed he no conduct background checks on sales. Yet he wished that there was an easy way to review the history of a potential buyer. The user claimed that some world reaching out through Armslist didn’t pass a gut check for a firearm transfer.

“If someone calls friend up and also says, ‘Hey, I’d favor to purchase a gun,’ friend should be able to check if the person deserve to have a gun,” the Florida user said. “I want to it is in a responsible pistol owner.”

The number of posts indigenous a user doesn’t necessarily enhance the variety of gun sales, and also the tool couldn’t account because that duplicate posts. However, because that every user us spoke with, we confirmed that their phone numbers appeared in multiple non-duplicate write-ups on the site.

We defined our result to regulation enforcement officials to acquire a sense of even if it is this constituted evidence of sellers gift “engaged in the business.”


A man was convicted of engaging in the service of selling guns without a license, when serving together an FBI agent

In a statement, an ATF spokesperson claimed the agency looks in ~ each instance to check out “whether there is enough evidence that willful misconduct” to prove a violation. “The volume the sales is just one element in examining whether who is unlawfully involved in the business, particularly since federal legislation expressly allows individuals to market their an individual firearms collections there is no a license,” the spokesperson said. “Numerous extr factors, such as the will of the seller, need to be considered.”

To develop a case, prosecutors must show that a human being was willfully taking illegal action — that a seller knew what they to be doing to be wrong and also flouted the regulation anyway.

“People that break this legislation should it is in prosecuted,” says Thomas Chittum, assistant manager of ar operations in ~ the ATF. “But the a difficult law to prosecute due to the fact that of the willfulness requirement and also because it’s very fact-intensive, and also sometimes those facts aren’t conveniently available.”

Prosecutors have actually relied ~ above the volume of digital listings as evidence in past cases. In 2010, a man was convicted of engaging in the organization of selling guns without a license, if serving as an FBI agent. He had actually posted virtually 300 virtual gun ads over more than 3 years and also collected more than $118,000 in firearm sales.

United says Attorney because that the district of Minnesota Erica macdonald stifled laughter once asked whether prosecutors can want come scrutinize a seller who had actually posted numerous listings. “Yeah,” she said.

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firearms are offered online in numerous ways. Retailers prefer Bass pro Shops, Brownells, or BudsGunShop.com market their weapons through agency websites, but buyers choose up the weapons from licensed dealers. There are additionally online marketplaces, favor GunBroker and also GunsAmerica, whereby the websites directly participate in the transaction in some method and allow for firearm transfers to flow through federal patent holders. Then there are places like Armslist that duty as an online classified ar tailored to guns, and all transactions are done peer to peer.

The idea because that Armslist created in the summer of 2007, when Jonathan Gibbon to be a student at the united state Air force Academy, that told the website Human Events. He witnessed that Craigslist had actually banned gun listings and also thought he can step in to fill the void. Therefore he connected with his classmate Brian Mancini in ~ a fourth of July party and also they put together a simple version the the site.

Someone looking come offload a gun have the right to put up a listing ~ above Armslist in minutes and then simply wait for prospective buyers to reach out. Through a few clicks, sellers can say whereby they’re selling their gun, the make and build, just how much the costs, and include one email attend to for queries. The process is as easy as purchase a chair top top Craigslist. Countless of the users we speak with claimed the site’s simplicity is a large part that its draw.

When a the person who lives visits a listing, they have the right to learn practically everything they’d want to know around their brand-new firearm. Increase top, there are pictures of the gun native multiple angles, in addition to the manufacturer and also caliber size. They simply need to click the “contact seller” switch to relocate forward and complete the sale. In part cases, sellers will incorporate a an individual cell number.

“It associate firearm owners and enthusiasts, helping world to uncover deals ~ above firearms and gear in their neighborhood area,” Gibbon said Human Events in 2010. “Imagine a gun display that never ever ends, yet you require an net connection.”


Looking because that a pistol? machine gun and silencer? Rocket launcher? Armslist users space willing to market you one.

Since that is founding, Armslist has gone ~ above to become one that the most famous gun heralding websites. The website offers almost any type of pistol you could imagine. In search of a pistol? maker gun and also silencer? Rocket launcher? Armslist users are willing to market you one.

Once you uncover what you’re looking for, just contact the seller and also arrange a meetup to end up the transaction. The transfer have the right to take ar in a gun store, home, or parking lot. There room no rules on whereby the handover requirements to happen, as lengthy as the timing works for both parties. The process is flexible sufficient for also the busiest virtual gun buyer.

The business has additionally become notorious for offering firearm access to world prohibited native owning guns. In a document published in 2019, researchers with the university of Minnesota scraped more than 4.9 million Armslist listings indigenous the website and also found that less than 10 percent mentioned a background check.

In 2011, Demetry Smirnov, a Russian immigrant living in Canda, illegal purchased a handgun ~ above Armslist and later offered it to murder a woman who spurned his romantic advances. Mohammod Youssuf Abdulazeez, a naturalized us citizen who came to be a radicalized jihadist, offered weapons obtained through Armslist to kill five US service members in Chattanooga, Tennessee in 2015. In 2018, a mrs who used Armslist to traffic guns was sentenced come 18 month in prison, but before her sentencing, among her former weapons was supplied to shooting a police officer in Boston. And also last year, federal prosecutors brought a case against an Alabama resident that admitted to trafficking firearms acquired with Armslist to brand-new York, California, and Mexico, after he watched a documentary movie on gun trafficking in 2016.

Gun offering that bypasses the background inspect system through exclusive transactions is typically called the gun present loophole — in this case, the gun present just wake up to it is in online. There are just a pair of restrictions: if the seller believes that the gun might be going to a human who is prohibited native owning a firearm or is from exterior of your state, they cannot legally make the sale.

There are no regulations that clearly target the sale of firearms over the internet, and also all virtual sales are claimed to be organized to the exact same legal standards as sales that take place at physics locations. Machine guns, silencers, and also other firearms and accessories regulated under the National guns Act require fingerprinting and registration with the ATF. License is granted federal guns dealers are forced to perform background checks and maintain documents of gun sales.

Advocates and also the US government have been studying the revenue of firearms and gun accessories with Armslist and also other virtual websites for years, but little has changed in terms of just how they operate. In February 2019, the advocacy group Everytown for Gun safety and security contacted 150 sellers on Armslist come buy weapons undercover. More than 65 percent of these sellers indicated that they would certainly not require a background inspect to complete the sale. (Everytown’s charitable arm provides resources to The Trace.)

When the ATF find someone that believes to be illegally selling guns, the company might, in lieu of prompt prosecution, send a warning letter demanding the human stop selling. A warning letter have the right to lay the groundwork for a case showing a doubt knew what they to be doing to be over the line, Chittum says. It can additionally act together a deterrent for illegal total sellers, as soon as prosecutors can’t take every case.


Lytton states that warning letters room a generally used tactic throughout regulatory bodies, and are a low-cost device to enforce commonwealth standards, which have the right to be especially useful if the company doesn’t have actually the resources to mountain a full investigation. However they have actually an apparent drawback: the addressee may choose to overlook them.

Around 2014, in one instance in Minnesota, a guy named Eitan Feldman started buying and also reselling guns, often purchasing them indigenous a registered dealer and also then flipping castle on Armslist, according to prosecutors. Weapons he’d marketed started transforming up in ~ crime scenes: police said they connected shots fired in ~ a Minneapolis house to a pistol Feldman had actually bought a week earlier, and also during a marijuana trafficking investigation, recovered a revolver Feldman had bought three months before. The ATF executed a search warrant on his house, detect shotguns that Feldman had legally purchased and then posted for sale on Armslist, occasionally within work of buying them.

In 2015, ATF agents personally handed Feldman a written warning saying he showed up to it is in a “dealer in firearms” under the law and informed him the he could challenge criminal prosecution if he continued. Still, he preserved selling guns, flipping six semi-automatic pistols and also a semi-automatic rifle over the next couple of months, according to court records. “The reality that he preserved doing the after gaining a letter native ATF was type of a head scratcher,” states Assistant united state Attorney because that the district of Minnesota Benjamin Bejar, that prosecuted the case.

Feldman was ultimately charged through illegally selling firearms. “Most defendants whom i sentence have actually not had the courtesy of having the federal federal government hand lock a composed warning and give lock a opportunity to stop,” the judge said during the hearing. He was sentenced come 18 months’ imprisonment in 2016.

But even if it is illegal sellers room warned or not, the consequences can be devastating.

Christopher Henderson and also John Phillips, follow to court records, made a business out that buying guns in the South, whereby gun constraints are loose, and also then reselling them up north. The two would buy from sellers top top Armslist in Kentucky, rolling with the state in a white dodge Challenger, then journey them ago to Chicago. A broker working through Henderson and also Phillips would then resell the weapons, often on Facebook. Quickly after, the guns would rotate up in ~ crime scenes.

In 2017, around nine miles away from whereby Commander Paul Bauer was killed, a 15-year-old boy named Xavier Soto to be murdered. Prosecutors later connected the gun supplied in the killing — a Taurus pistol — to a acquisition Henderson made through Armslist.

Both that the men were sentenced for illegal sales. At Henderson’s sentencing, Soto’s sister gave an emotionally account of she brother’s brief life.

“Our resides will never be the same,” she called the court with tears. “These alleged individuals supplied a weapon that was provided to killing a 15-year-old boy.”

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as soon as she dialed 911 ~ an attack in October 2012, Zina Daniel Haughton claimed her husband, Radcliffe Haughton, had actually been violent because that years. Police took she to a vacation Inn for the night, her household later stated in court papers, but he showed up at her job-related the next day with a knife and also slashed the tires of she car.

Zina soon asked for a restraining order versus Radcliffe. She described to a Wisconsin court: he had an explosive temper, threaten to throw mountain on her face. “I don’t desire to die,” she claimed in a hearing. The judge granted the restraining order, which barred she husband from owning a gun.

Two days after she testimony, Radcliffe Haughton found and purchased a semi-automatic handgun on Armslist indigenous a exclusive seller that didn’t run a lift check. Haughton make the buy native the front chair of the seller’s car, according to the family, in a McDonald’s parking lot. The next day, he gone into the suburban Milwaukee salon wherein Zina worked and also opened fire. He killed three people, including Zina, before transforming the pistol on himself.

In the aftermath, Armslist faced questions about its role. Had actually the agency effectively assisted in a fixed shooting? Yasmeen Daniel, Zina’s daughter, to be at the spa once her mommy was killed, and also filed suit versus Armslist in 2015, arguing that the shooting could’ve been stopped.

But the same law that shields significant social media companies like Facebook native liability because that terrorist content developed by their users additionally protects Armslist from being sue when negative actors use their platform. Section 230 of the communications Decency action is widely seen as the law that do the modern internet possible, paving the method for net forums, society media, and also much more.


The act protects website operator from being sued over what their customers post. If who writes a defamatory tweet, for example, the person being defamed can’t sue Twitter because that letting that happen.

”If you forced a patent for each tweet that gets posted, that would make Twitter impossible,” says Grimmelmann, the Cornell professor. “It doesn’t do firearm sales impossible.”

Armslist relied on ar 230 for its defense in the Daniel case. The company’s lawyers suggested that the website can not be held liable for unlawful sales. “Under this theory, Armslist might go in, look in ~ an ad, and also say, ‘Oh, the an ad from the exact same seller that illegally sold 10 weapons in the instance that was well known last year, and also wow, that looks prefer this ad is illegal,’” Grimmelmann says. ‘“We don’t care. We’re no going come touch it.’”

The lawsuit’s counter argument was straightforward: Armslist wasn’t just a bystander top top the sidelines when sales happened, however a participant. The style of the site, the suit argued, allowed buyers come search particularly for sellers who wouldn’t execute a background check, giving world who were barred indigenous owning firearms an easy way to purchase one. The suit said the website relied top top a service model that “put firearms in the hand of prohibited purchasers.”

The Daniel family’s suit has challenged mixed judgments indigenous the courts. ~ one court dismissed the suit, an appeals court reversed the decision, permitting it come proceed. A 2nd appeal, this time native Armslist, elevated the instance to Wisconsin’s can be fried Court, which decided that Armslist was protected under the interactions Decency Act. Most recently, in November of last year, the can be fried Court that the US declined to hear the case, leave in place the Wisconsin can be fried Court’s ruling.

The intersection of internet speech law and also gun legal rights policy has scrambled some usual political divides. After the Wisconsin can be fried Court decision, the Cato Institute, a libertarian think tank, claimed that alters to 230 would reason “real and permanent” damages to the 2nd Amendment. The nonprofit digital Frontier Foundation, which suggests for civil civil liberties online, filed a short in the situation in favor of Armslist, suggesting that recognize the website liable would “severely curtail free expression online.”

The short put the nonprofit at odds with teams like the nonprofit Cyber Civil rights Initiative, which says that the law was meant to protect great Samaritans, not to offer cover come anyone who runs a website through third-party task regardless the the consequences.


“The reality that Armslist is quiet in company after every the lawsuits it’s faced is nice remarkable”

The Wisconsin can be fried Court disagreed, note in the decision the Armslist can not be hosted responsible also if that knew its website would be offered to rest the law. So long as a website deserve to be used for legal purposes, the didn’t issue that that was offered for illegal activity, too.

Seen from one angle, the battle over Armslist looks favor a microcosm of the larger war over Silicon sink power and accountability. Should Facebook, because that example, face aftermath for failing come fact-check politics ads? Both Republicans and also Democrats have taken aim at ar 230 recently, worried around the wide legal shield it offers the tech industry.

Eric Goldman, a professor at the Santa Clara University school of law who has written about the benefits of 230, stated the court the ruled versus Armslist “just sort of went turn off the rails,” and also he argues that chipping away at protections in the law will bring about legal difficulties for smaller sites.

”The vital point of ar 230 was the Congress want sites to have the liberty to shot and police against bad content, and not are afraid that they would be liable for anything lock miss,” Goldman says. “If they’re held to a 100 percent standard, then they wouldn’t carry out it at all.”

Some human being might want to view Armslist go, the says, but other sites will likewise lose legitimate protections without 230. “The fact that Armslist is tho in business after all the lawsuits it’s confronted is quite remarkable,” that says. “Without ar 230 castle would’ve been gone a long time ago.”

The power of the regulation isn’t limitless, however. Commonwealth prosecutors might shut under the website and also indict its owners under criminal charges if they believed the regulation was broken.

”One of the standard tropes in the ar is that section 230 create a lawless zone,” Goldman says. “Anyone who states that is factually wrong. Section 230 does not restrict federal criminal prosecutions.”

But Mary anne Franks, chairman of the Cyber Civil rights Initiative, claims the legislation has effectively given a one-of-a-kind legal shield come online activity that wouldn’t be safeguarded in physical space. “If it i will not ~ be speech if it was offline, it shouldn’t be speech if it’s online,” she argues.

”Punching somebody in the confront is no speech, even though it might be very expressive,” she says. “What section 230 has actually done is seduce courts right into not making that sort of analysis. Instead, they assume that if that happening online then that speech, and also then they walk to the following step.”

Franks questions whether the stakes have actually truly hit home for defenders that a vast interpretation of the statute. “We have actually a instance in Armslist i beg your pardon is really a inquiry of life or death, and also they don’t seem come think the that’s relevant,” she says.

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after pleading guilty because that illegally selling weapons on Armslist, cutting board Caldwell had his sentencing listening in November 2018. If he faced charges for illegal gun sales, the death of commander Paul Bauer loomed end the proceedings. Caldwell’s defense team pleaded because that probation, saying Caldwell had been through enough: his “digital tradition will attach him forever” through the murdered officer, his attorneys wrote to the court.

The start disagreed, and also pushed for prison time. A prosecutor called the judge the Caldwell had disregarded a warning native the ATF. They essential to make clear that was unacceptable. “Next time an ATF agent delivers among those warning letters, I want them also to have the ability to be in the place to deliver a story. ‘Look what happened to cutting board Caldwell,’” the prosecutor said. To add emotion to their argument, the prosecution referred to as for the testimony that someone that knew Bauer well: Northeastern Illinois university Police Chief man Escalante.

Escalante prospered up through Bauer native the age of seven. The 2 went to the exact same grade school, the very same college, and also then joined the Chicago Police room together. Escalante always thought Bauer was the responsible one. In college, Bauer was the significant student, Escalante said, when he to be “a tiny bit more of a partier” and also was “politely asked” no to return after 2 years. But as luck would have it, in 1986, they gone into the police department within one month of every other. “We invested the following 30 year chasing each other roughly the roadways of Chicago together Chicago police officers,” that said.

Escalante remembered gaining the call from one officer that knew ~ above the force. The told Escalante that he need to sit down, and delivered the news that Bauer had actually been shot.

When Escalante learned that the gun had actually made its means from Wisconsin to Chicago through Armslist, he wasn’t surprised. Escalante rose through the ranks of the Chicago Police Department and was, because that a time, that interim superintendent. He’d watched the toy fee of illegal gun sales ~ above the city. “It’s happened too many times and now it occurred to my good friend Paul and it do not do it have,” that said.

At Caldwell’s sentencing, Escalante claimed he was looking ago at “every text, every email” v Bauer for moments that made him laugh. He didn’t cite Armslist, but focused ~ above “accountability,” and “those that placed the weapons into the hand of those the commit the violence.”

Escalante stated that he’d struggled come say Bauer had died. “You dice of old age, you dice of sickness, you die from accidents, but when who fires lot of rounds into your body, that’s not dying,” he told the court, “that’s a murder.”

This story was released in partnership v The Trace, a non-profit newsroom covering gun violence.

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Update, 2:30PM ET, January 17th: In a declare sent adhering to publication, an attorney for Armslist said “courts have consistently ruled that Armslist.com drops squarely within the ‘safe harbor’ of section 230” and also that the firm both “fully complies” through all laws and regularly assists law enforcement. “The gist the the opposition come Armslist lies in opposition to the exclusive ownership of firearms,” the statement said.